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Tuesday, 12. Dec 2017

The Returnees and Newcomers


Queen of the Atlantic Ocean

Most of the Norwegians made their return crossing with Kristianiafjord, Bergensfjord or Stavangerfjord that belonged to The Norwegian - American Line. Making her maiden voyage in 1913, Kristianiafjord was the first ship in operation, but Stavangerfjord soon became the most popular. Often called the "Queen of the Atlantic Ocean", she transported more than 640,000 passengers from 1918 to 1964. When Stavangerfjord called the port of Stavanger, the city welcomed her with music and cheerful people waiting to reunite with their loved ones.


American Influences
The remigrants brought change in many forms: New words, "American houses" - new-style houses of brick rather than wood, fancy clothes, as well as ideologies and philosophies. Many of those returning to Europe also displayed an openness that shook off the old and helped transform the peasant world. Remigration contributed to a mingling of cultures which encouraged change as well as helping bring a gradual integration of the cultures of Europe and America.

But there was also a direct influence. In 1896 the first public movie performance took place in the United States. Eight years later, in 1904, the first movie theater opened in Oslo. By 1914 there were more than 150 cinemas in all of Norway. Half of the films shown in Norway were by then American. The America appearing in many of these films had an immense and worldwide appeal. It was largely built on the Wild West, Buffalo Bill, and Nick Carter image that was already familiar from the mass literature. The films, the music and entertainment industry had a massive impact on the cultural development in Europe and Norway. Today American brands and symbols have become part of our daily life and environment.


Norway Today

The ebb and flow of migration can be explained by an interplay of domestic and international economic circumstances. Economic growth and prosperity in postwar Norway and new national quota systems in the 1960s in the United States reduced overseas migration from Norway. Not more than 49,500 Norwegians emigrated to the United States between 1946 and 1978.


Immigration takes over

Today the trend has turned: emigration has been replaced by immigration. At the end of 2004 Norway had 4,579,000 residents. About 332 800 persons of the population, or 7.3 percent, are immigrants (2003). The Swedes, counting close to 22,000, are the largest ethnic group among the first generation immigrants. People from the third world constitute close to one third of all immigrants. Oslo has the largest contingent of immigrants, followed by Bergen, Stavanger, Bærum and Trondheim.

Ten largest nasjonality groups. First-generation immigrants and persons born in Norway with to foreign born parents.
1 January 2003
First generation immigrants Persons born in Norway with to foreign born parents
Total

 277,262

Total

55,531

Sweden

21,945

Pakistan

10,976

Denmark

18,019

Vietnam

5,246

Iraq

14,578

Turkey

4,007

Pakistan

14,570

Sri Lanka

3,690

Bosnia-Herzegovina

13,572

Somalia

2,936

Vietnam

11,698

India

2,233

Iran

11,058

Morocco

2,144

Somalia

10,753

Bosnia-Herzegovina

1,926

United Kingdom

10,461

Iraq

1,859

Germany

10,027

Yugoslavia

1,780

A comparison between western and non-western immigrants indicates that 99 000 persons, or 30 per cent of all immigrants originated from a western country. In the last 10 years the immigrant population grew by 72 per cent. Except for people with North American and Oceanian background, all immigration groups increased during this decade. The number of Eastern-Europeans increased the most. Currently there are almost three times as many people from Eastern European countries in Norway as there were ten years ago. Also the group of people with background from Asia, Africa and South America increased markedly. The total number of immigrants with the latter background doubled during the last decade.

For further reading:

An Introduction

The Pioneers
The Crossing

The Arrival

Early Settlers

Westward Movement

In the Cities

Proudness

Returnees and Newcomers



 

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